History and Art Appreciation of handpainted ceramic tiles In China

The handpainted ceramic tiles refers to a kind of flat ceramic handicrafts which is hand-painted and glazed with special mineral pigments or chemical pigments on plain porcelain panels, and then fired at high temperature. It is both porcelain decorative art, but also painting or calligraphy works of art, is a ceramic craft products from the life of the tool into the field of art after the five crafts decorations, It integrated into the literati Environmentalaike text painting art and popular appreciation of the art of ceramics and the formation of a new category.


Handpainted ceramic tiles can be mounted alone or embedded in the screen and other appliances, both ornamental, but also very practical. In 2008, the handpainted ceramic tiles was selected as a national intangible cultural heritage list.

Hand painted ceramic tiles, the main colors are blue red, and brown etc,the content of the design covers a wide range of figures, landscapes, flowers, insects and birds, fishes and algae and auspicious motifs, etc., and the shape of the rectangle, circle, oval, square, multi-angle, fan and heterogeneous and other shapes.

1, the history of traceability

The handpainted ceramic tiles process has a long history, can be traced back to the earliest Qin and Han Dynasties, the real meaning of “porcelain panel painting” appeared in the mid-Ming Dynasty, Hubei Zhongxiang obvious Ling tiles can be seen on the porcelain panel painting of a variety of features. From the middle of the Qing Dynasty, with the rapid development of economic development and porcelain technology and technology to flourish.
At that time, The handpainted ceramic tiles artists to paper and silk on the Chinese painting transplanted to porcelain, so The handpainted ceramic tiles gradually favored by people, become an important commodity porcelain. The most common is inlaid porcelain screen and inlaid porcelain table, stool, inlaid porcelain panel painting varieties are very much, painting, decorative content is also very broad, including figures, landscapes, flowers, insects and birds, plumes, fish and algae, auspicious motifs, and so on, almost everything. Among them, the most famous porcelain panel paintings are out of Jingdezhen, the use of Chinese painting in the shallow Jiangcai painting method for copying and creation, creating a colorful porcelain panel painting precedent.

2, cultural characteristics
The handpainted ceramic tiles is not only inherits the essence of traditional Chinese painting, but also compatible with the advantages of Chinese ceramic art, which is the perfect combination of painting art and ceramic art, but also the crystallization of the infinite wisdom of the Chinese nation, and it has an important position in the history of Chinese painting art and the field of international painting art.

First of all, The handpainted ceramic tiles integrates the charm of Chinese ceramic art and painting art, expands the field of Chinese painting and the physical and natural changes of composition and color, greatly enriches the expressive power of Chinese culture and art, and at the same time, it is compatible with the perfect tension between the practical art apparatus and ornamental art jewelry, which reflects the result of the continuous perfection of ceramics production process and culture and art, and its composition, line, color, and mood, absorbing the traditional Its composition, lines, colors, mood, absorbed the traditional Chinese painting style tradition, and branded on the Western modern painting art style, so that the ceramic craft products into different cultures and arts and the formation of a new category of ceramic art.

Secondly, the chemical properties of porcelain painting is stable, not moisture and mold, compared with paper and other materials such as paintings, has a unique delicate texture, smooth and clean, elegant and pure, decorative and easy to save and affordable, but also a strong promotion of culture in the industrial economy, so that cultural works of art in the enrichment of people’s lives at the same time, to promote the growth and development of the economy.

Third, the diversity of styles of The handpainted ceramic tiles , inclusive of a wide range, greatly enriched the field of art and the people’s artistic life, expanding people’s aesthetic mood, catering to the aesthetic needs of modern people, highlighting the cultural and decorative arts, in line with the traditional aesthetic habits and aesthetic interests of the people.

Fourth, The handpainted ceramic tiles form of diverse, colorful, its color has Tang three colors, blue and white, watercolor, ink color, soft color, bucket color, five colors, pastel, gold color, red color, yellow color, enamel, bronze color, and so on more than 200 kinds of colors and the color is always bright, will not be due to sunlight and water immersion and discoloration, easy to decorate and collect. Porcelain panel painting style is also diverse, in addition to the common rectangular, square, there are round, oval, fan-shaped, chicken heart-shaped, leaf-shaped, etc., to facilitate home decoration, both independent of the body hanging in the living room, study, but also for furniture inlaid decorations, or made of screen or screen to meet a variety of aesthetics and use of the needs of the people and become a work of art of the family environment.

Third, art appreciation

The handpainted ceramic tiles ,have two thousand years of development history, but the real prosperity and popularity and become a mass consumer goods or from the mid to late Qing Dynasty, especially from the Guangxu to the early Republic of China is most prosperous, a wide range of varieties, specifications gradually increased, the picture of figures in landscape, Buddhism and Taoism gods and goddesses, birds, flowers, insects and plants, animals and plants, and static objects are all visible, the porcelain is clean and white, noble taste, high and low grades. Thus becoming a mass consumption type, high-grade decorative and cultural relics collection type of new art consumer goods.

In the appreciation of The handpainted ceramic tiles , first of all from the artistic level should appreciate the architecture of porcelain painting, color, connotation, style and creative techniques, especially the fire fumigation of porcelain paintings under the flow of color personality so that the creator’s personality has changed a thousand times, so that the color, scenery, style, connotation have new changes, showing more than the paper and silk paintings have more color art and changes in the chapters and thus make the porcelain paintings have become a colorful! Even appeared three-dimensional color sculpture and oil painting inculcation of the mood.

Secondly, to be appreciated from the visual aesthetics, such as the handpainted ceramic tiles flow out of the three-dimensional visual or kiln fluid art, can give a person a supernatural feeling, and even make people “bamboo in the eyes of the” to become “in the chest of the bamboo”, so that the porcelain panel painting art appreciation value has infinite Enlargement, become a glorious art.

The third is to appreciate the color art of the handpainted ceramic tiles , because the porcelain painting is not a person can fully control the art, but also not the artisans to the pursuit of beauty and the creation of the product, it is the fire and tamed out of the art, in the fire and tamed under the discipline of fumigation, the porcelain painting creators of cultural and artistic creativity and beautiful vision of the fire and the fire collide with more sparks, the color is more colorful, more profound scenery, wind, frost, rain, snow, rain and rainbows of seven colors such as a kaleidoscope scene, make people view the beauty of a long time, and the viewer is a good idea of a good idea. Make people viewed after the beauty of a long, lingering memories, the Chinese nation has formed a “unity of man and heaven” philosophical thinking and the harmony of man and nature to achieve a state of mind. Also makes the Chinese nation’s splendid culture hidden in the life of a strong sense of hope and love of feelings manifested to the fullest, so that people think of the greatness of mankind, understand a lot of life in some of the reasoning and spiritual cleansing.

Fourth, identification and quality

The handpainted ceramic tiles is an art collection of ornamental art, but also commercial goods, porcelain panel painting appreciation should pay attention to distinguish the porcelain panel painting is an art collection of ornamental art or daily consumption of works of art.

(A) look at The handpainted ceramic tiles technology. The main appearance: one is to see whether the plate is flat. Where the center of the porcelain plate arched, skewed or a corner of the warped, are inferior or inferior products, even if it is more than a hundred years of circulation, can not be a real art collection, its value is low. Second, look at the surface of the porcelain plate is smooth. Where the surface has shrunken glaze, black spots, hemp surface, wormholes, can not be art collection, its economic value is not high. Third, look at the porcelain plate, glaze, color and painting techniques, excellent workmanship, font dashing, smooth tone is often the style of porcelain, but also people chasing the work of art, worthy of attention.

(B) see whether the handpainted ceramic tiles is complete. One is to see whether the block of the handpainted ceramic tiles is complete, with or without cracks or rushes; two is to see whether the picture of porcelain plate painting flowers or characters story is complete, some of the the handpainted ceramic tiles is a group of two or four a group, if only one of them or a part of the picture or this block of porcelain plate paintings of flowers or characters in the lack of a little bit of its artistic appreciation and economy will also be greatly reduced. Third, look at the surface of the handpainted ceramic tiles is clear and complete, where the picture has a glaze off or be wiped scratches or broken lines, as well as pollution are inferior.

(C) look at the handpainted ceramic tiles is exquisite. Mainly look at the handpainted tile intention, composition, chapter and color art coordination, reasonable, whether the scene description is in place, whether the plot is reasonable, whether the layout is coordinated, where the plot of painting and time and space seasons or logical incongruity as well as shoddy, can not be a work of art, and its economic attributes have been greatly reduced.

(D) to see whether the firing process in place, where the fire work is not in place, kiln change is not good, hair color dark gray, string color dirt, can not become a craft, much less a work of art, its economic attributes are almost zero.

(E) look at the handpainted ceramic tiles . The handpainted ceramic tiles is to appreciate and consume the collection of painting the highest realm, The handpainted ceramic tiles to be faithful to the natural form of the objective object, the objective object is highly summarized and refined figurative graphics of a form of expression. It has a distinctive image characteristics, is the essence of the real object of concentration and refinement, generalization and simplification, highlighting and exaggeration. The purpose is to achieve the beauty of harmony, to form a simple, distinctive features to present the specific content to be expressed, with a fresh, bright popularity and a high degree of clarity of identification, the performance of the freer, full of personality, in order to fully express the essence of the art and the logo intention to convey. At the same time, it should also have high cultural connotation and artistic infectivity. The specific performance is as follows:

First, the human body modeling. The human body modeling is mainly expressed in the human body movement posture and body movement posture. The human body should be vivid personality, the body posture beautiful, from which you can see the human thoughts, feelings, psychological flow. The dynamics of the limbs can be seen in the thoughts and feelings of communication and expression, conveyed by the beautiful, leisurely and lifelike visual dynamics.

Second, animal modeling. Animals as a symbol of the theme is a very old symbol of the handpainted ceramic tiles matter. As early as in ancient times, people have animals as a symbol of totem worship, the animal depicts the image written very exaggerated or special. Animal modeling in porcelain painting must be image, vivid, docile and lovely, in order to be loved by the people, such as no special scenery or in addition to special purposes, too fierce animal modeling, it is generally very difficult to enter the people’s consumption or collection of vision.

Third, plant modeling. Plants are often beautiful symbols to express the meaning of good luck and precious happy happy life. Plant modeling in porcelain painting at least two aspects to pay close attention to: one is decorative pattern, decorative pattern is not a direct facsimile of plants, but the formation of the graphic structure and then combined with specific plants, thus producing a specific decorative effect, which is particularly prominent in the Ming and Qing dynasty porcelain painting decoration, appreciation to fully evaluate the image of its image appearance and reflect the intention of the second is the geometrical pattern, the modern symbol of the plant modeling Most of the modern logo plant modeling is round, square, triangular and other geometric shapes or deformation of graphics, showing the modern art of structuralism, impressionism style party and abstract thinking, the performance of the fashion trend, and therefore loved by young people.


Fourthly, artifact modeling. Artifacts is a general term for all kinds of utensils, involving a wide range of varieties. From the form, as large as towering buildings, huge transportation, etc., as small as a variety of artifacts, fruits, tools and other static modeling, showing a combination of static and motion, leisure and joyful scene, can make people watch after the thought and physical can quickly calm down.

Fifth, natural modeling. Natural phenomenon is a symbol of the mysterious force of nature. Since the birth of mankind, it has been linked to the immense and incomparable power, the infinity of change, and the eternal design theme also find a home here. Mountains and rivers, stars, water and fire is this type of sign commonly used subject matter, the expression of the towering mountains, vast rivers and seas and the vastness of the universe, the greater the natural phenomena expressed by the valor and spectacular scenes, can expand the human vision and soul, the use of the scene is also a large-scale buildings or parks places, can provide people with a wide range of spatial horizons.

(F) look at the allegory of the handpainted ceramic tilesits moral is the first reaction of all creators and admirers, is the pursuit of beauty and the power to motivate people. Therefore, whether it is on the handpainted ceramic tiles appreciation, its evaluation and reflect the essence must have its moral. In China’s more than 5,000 years of painting history, the meaning of the expression of the beautiful symbolism, the image of the scene are expressed with the beauty of auspicious symbolism, the beauty of auspicious harmony, auspicious and soft beauty, auspicious and happy beauty, the beauty of the symbolism of the general symbolism of the figures, animals, plants, and deformation of the images to give a person the form of the image, beautiful, peaceful, perfect visual feelings and personal thoughts and feelings of life, as well as to make the person The pursuit of upward mobility, and ultimately seek the meaning of life and humanity.

V. Inheritance value

Traditional handpainted ceramic tiles has a long history, the real meaning of porcelain painting began in the Ming and Qing dynasties, has been more than 200 years of continuous history. As a major civilization carrier, for the Chinese civilization and even the continuity of the world civilization embodies the immense artistic effect, has a dense national style, giving people a dramatic artistic enjoyment. 2008 porcelain painting was selected as a national intangible cultural heritage list.

As the Chinese traditional painting method, the rich content and basic characteristics and inheritance history of porcelain panel painting are rare in China and even in the world art history, breaking through the aesthetic characteristics and consciousness of traditional painting, which has a high academic research value for the study of Chinese traditional painting culture and ceramic painting art. In the 1990s, people’s artistic pursuit and artistic perception and aesthetic ideals have undergone qualitative changes in the aesthetic category with a milestone development, porcelain painting due to the fusion of the essence of traditional Chinese painting, painting and ceramic art is the perfect blend of art and ceramic art, and has a waterproof and fire-resistant, not afraid of smoke dirty corrosion-resistant, become a more ideal collection, the market price is repeatedly high, the transaction Prosperity continues, has become a new high ground for the integration and development of economic and cultural industries.