How to make a handpainted ceramic tiles


1 Glaze

There are more than 400 types of glazes used in porcelain prints, all of which are made from 6 basic glazes. These 6 kinds of basic glaze can not be bought directly, you have to mix by youselves.

The basic glazes are white, brown, black, red, green and blue. the effect is different.

Take one of the blue in terms of the preparation of raw materials are: lead frit, red Dan, quartz,feldspar and cobalt oxide.

The method of preparation is not difficult.

First of all, prepare a porcelain altar, put some spherical stone inside. Then, according to the proportion of weighing out the corresponding amount of raw materials, poured into the porcelain altar.

Blue base glaze formula: 8-20% lead frit, red Dan 40-65%, quartz 18-25%, feldspar 1-5%, cobalt oxide 0.5-1.5%.. Of course, this is only a reference data, and the temperature of the furnace during firing, are directly related. To master the optimal proportion of the formula, we still have to test it according to our own conditions.

After the ingredients, but also to the altar to add some water, water and raw materials in the total ratio of about 1: 1. Then, the porcelain altar lid cover, strong small, then take a rubber hammer smash. Finally, the porcelain altar to the ball mill, open the switch, so that the ball mill driven porcelain altar rotation, the blue base glaze.

24 hours later, the blue base glaze can be used.

Other colours are prepared in the same way, but with different recipes.

From this basic glaze recipe table, we can see, regardless of the preparation of the colour of the basic glaze, including: leaded frit, red Dan, quartz, feldspar four basic raw materials, and the proportion of little change, or remain unchanged. The real cause of colour change is oxygeniron oxide red, manganese dioxide, copper oxide and cobalt oxide. For example, the white colour can be prepared with only four basic raw materials, while the red colour needs to be added to the four basic raw materials.

Four basic raw materials, and then add a certain amount of iron oxide red, black need to add a certain amount of iron oxide red, manganese dioxide and cobalt oxide
Black needs to add a certain amount of iron oxide red, manganese dioxide and cobalt oxide to be made.

With the basic glaze, the preparation of various glaze colours is very easy. What colour do you want, check on the colour matching table, according to the prescribed base glaze

According to the ratio of the base glaze, weigh out the corresponding amount and mix it well. These finished glaze colours, before firing, are not the colours we want, just by looking at them.

In addition to the glaze, we also need to prepare another thing, called line soil. Line soil is used in the porcelain plate, drawing the design of the lines marked out

The lines of the standing line part of the design.

2, with the vertical line soil

The method of matching vertical line soil with the glaze is almost the same method, only the raw materials and formulas are different. The raw materials and formula for the preparation of vertical line soil are:

Embryo soil 15-25%, black wool soil 20-40%, quartz 15-35%, feldspar 15-30%. After mixing according to the proportion and polishing for 24 hours, it can be used.


Now let’s go back and look at it again, the tied plastic line drawing is available, the effect is available, the glaze is available, and the standing line clay is available. But This is a painting to have paper plus this market bought ceramic tiles, craftsmen can make porcelain prints, the Craft procedures, this is called glaze.

3, glaze
Glaze also scored a few steps to complete. First of all, is to prepare the size of the plain tiles. Next, it’s time to use the lines we copied earlier

The lines we copied earlier on the polyurethane film.

(1) Printing

Printing, that is, the polyurethane film lines laid on the plain tiles, and then on the surface of the plastic draft, printing a layer of ink, ink through the plastic draft

Ink through the small holes in the plastic draft, penetrate into the porcelain plate, the design of the lines, and then run to the plain tiles.

Next, you have to draw the lines in the line drawing that need to stand out.

(2) standing line

We now see this tool, is the standing line with a rubber ball, the upper end of the ball has a diameter of about 1.5 mm needle. When using.

First take an appropriate amount of standing line soil, such as the consistency of high, add an appropriate amount of water, so that the ratio of it to water, to maintain the 1:1, mix well, loaded into the rubber ball.

Into the rubber ball. Then, on the porcelain plate, face out the lines that need to stand line. The height of the lines should be between 1.5 and 2 mm.

The lines are used to add dimension to the work. At the time of designing, the areas to be lined are already marked out. Referring to the rendering, the

It is enough to sketch it out.

When standing line, pay attention to two words: slow and steady. As the saying goes, “slow work makes fine work”, we must ensure that the position of the line is accurate, the height to meet the requirements, not to mention the omission of

to the specified requirements, not to mention the omission of lines.

These jobs are finished, before the start of the real glaze.

(3) Glaze colour

Glaze, usually using a brush, each dip in the glaze, not only to dip the tip of the brush full, but also can not drip.

When glazing, you have to strictly follow the glaze colour number and glaze colour range set in the rendering, and choose the corresponding colour number to glaze. Glaze of one colour

To be finished at one time. The thickness of the glaze is about 1.5 mm. Moreover, you should know exactly which part to glaze and how to glaze it. Tang

Three-colour porcelain prints glaze process, often used to the technique, there are paving, covering, sweeping glaze, point glaze and so on. Flat paving is to use a kind of glaze colour

Covering refers to covering another glaze colour on top of a layer of glaze colour, resulting in the effect of two glaze colours blending together; sweeping glaze is often applied to the texture of the background.

Sweeping glaze is often used in the texture of the background (picture); Dotting glaze is a way to enrich the effect of the picture, in printmaking, by dotting other forms or colours, such as on the beach.

or colours on the prints, such as footprints on the beach, leaves and so on.

When glazing the figures of Peking Opera, we use mostly the flat method, and when glazing the beads on the figures’ headdresses, we use the overlay method.

In glazing the beads on the figure’s headdress, we used the technique of covering, first grey, then white.

During the glazing process, the glaze colour cannot go beyond the prescribed range, if there is a glaze dripping onto the plate accidentally, sorry, you have to use a razor blade to

Scrape it off, otherwise, the colour on the string.

At the same time, but also pay attention to the concentration of the glaze used, thick on the water adjustment, glaze is too thick, will cause the glaze is too thick, too thin, on the glaze colour and too thin.

The glaze colour is too thin. The ratio of glaze and water should be kept in the ratio of 1:1.

Want to make the glazed prints, the colour we want to appear, it has to go through high temperature firing.

4. Firing

The furnaces for firing are specially designed. Now, let’s put the glazed Peking Opera figures into the furnace together with other prints.

Inside the furnace. Placement, to be placed in layers, so that the glazed side up, between each layer of prints separated by porcelain strips, to prevent the prints from sticking. Top

On top, use the discarded porcelain plate, and then cover a layer, so as to avoid floating ash or other foreign matter, falling on the work.

Put a good, drop cover, do not cover tightly, leaving a gap of about 10 cm, in order to discharge moisture in the firing, otherwise, the beginning of the firing, moisture

Otherwise, when you start firing, the moisture will be too heavy and the porcelain plate may break. Nowadays, the firing temperature is controlled by electronic devices, that is, easy to control, firing up, temperature

and time are precise.

Generally, from the natural temperature to 500 ℃, need to be fired 3-4 hours. 500 ℃, after the furnace cover tightly, and then fired for about 2 hours to the specified temperature – 1050 ℃, keep warm.

After 500°C, the lid is tightly closed and the furnace is fired for about 2 hours to a specified temperature of 1050°C. The furnace is kept warm for 20-30 minutes. Then, open the lid of the furnace about 2-3 cm or so, naturally reduced to room temperature can be, 100 ℃ below, the lid will be completely closed.

When the temperature is below 100°C, open the lid completely and remove from the oven when the temperature is below 60°C.

Finally I can see the handpainted ceramic tile, the colours are vivid, and it will be even more beautiful when it is framed.